As we perform our approaches across levels (gene, cell, area, brain, behavior), we employ a variety of techniques in our lab combined with the newest imaging methods:


 Genome engineering (site-directed mutagenesis), real-time (quantitative)-PCR, RNAseq analysis (mRNA expression profiling), DNA sequence analysis, Wsetern blotting, proteomics



 Cell culture (cell lines/primary neurons/explants/neurospheres), immunocytochemistry, live cell imaging

Systems (functional assays)


Neurospheres (stem cells), explant and/or repulsion assays, proliferation/migration assays (BrdU/EdU), in utero electroporation



These include tests for long-term memory (i.e., object recognition), regulation of anxiety and vigilance (i.e., light-dark transfer, elevated plus maze (EPM), marble burying, and acoustic startle), sensorimotor gating (i.e., pre-pulse inhibition (PPI)), and social behavior (i.e., the tube test of social dominance, and social interaction test).